Find the most up-to-date version of DIN at Engineering 1 Jan DIN Pressure of fresh concrete on vertical formwork. standard by Deutsches Institut Fur Normung E.V. (German National Standard). Download scientific diagram | Maximum lateral pressure of fresh concrete according to DIN ; setting time of concrete: 5 h from publication.

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Kern Tunneltechnik – The crucial role played by the concrete in the formwork design

As stated previously, the maximum lateral pressure of the concrete, according to DIN It must be noted that, despite formworks are temporary structures, they affect the safety of the workers and the final result.

After a certain time indicated with tE in the Standardshowever the concrete starts setting, and consequently the lateral pressure can be neglected. The mix design and the cycle of work have to be considered at early stage to ensure safely designed and cost-effective formwork systems. 1818 classes vary from the stiff F1 to the very flowable F6, up to the self-consolidating concrete SCC. The concrete type represents one of the principal factors to take into account for a formwork design.

Formworks are temporary structures i. The shutter must be designed properly in order to ensure that the loads are carried safely with minimum deformations.

As a result of the developments in concrete technology and construction processes in the last years, the times required to complete a pour are always more and more challenging. The most significant load, especially for a tunnel shutter, is represented by the concrete pressure. This gives rise to a lower pressure acting on the layers below.


The consistency classes are based on spread values determined per DIN according to the slump-flow test. When the cement and water chemically react, the concrete starts gaining a certain strength and it can carry part of the weight of the concrete djn. They are used to cast inner rings of tunnel, walls, slabs, ecc.

The formwork must withstand several loads such as dead loads self-weight of the structurelive loads, fresh concrete pressure and in some cases wind and snow loads. The rate of placement of concrete are always higher, up to hydrostatic pressures, and the concrete more flowable than in the past. Despite the notion of temporary structures, formworks require a detailed dib specific design, due to the high loads involved.

The crucial role played by the concrete in the formwork design

Below this level, the pressure is considered constant, so an increasing of the depth does not more imply an increasing of the di. However, for a matter of simplicity, all these additional parameters are neglected by the codes due to their not significate impact on the final load evaluation.

This pressure is comparable, at least in the first stage, to the pressure that the water exerts against the wall of a basin. From this it is easy to understand how the concrete type and quality can impact on the dimensions of the formwork and consequently on its costs.

However, all these methods assume that concrete pressure increases linearly with depth to a maximum value and remains constant thereafter.


Several studies and methods have been developed to predict the lateral pressure of the concrete. The consistency class plays a crucial role in the maximum pressure definition: This means higher loads acting of the formworks and consequently a bigger importance must be given to its design. The value of the lateral concrete pressure is regulated by different standards; in the European countries the most used is the German standard DIN Start-up of the Karlsruhe project.

However, the concrete is fluid only at earl stage of the pour; it starts the bounding process usually when the casting is still underway.

This is a simplified scheme; it takes into account only three variables: To avoid loss of time and money for the job site, formworks require the same level of Engineering required for permanent structures. Home About Us Products. When the concrete is placed, it exerts a horizontal pressure against the surface of the formwork.

In reality other factors, such as coarse aggregate concentration, aggregate nominal size, concrete temperature, smoothness and permeability of the formwork material, size and shape of the formwork can modify the pressure distribution. To prevent any risk, for the workers and for the final result, formwork should be designed for the ultimate as well for the serviceability limit states.